CHRONOLOGY OF THE
FREE SPEECH CONTROVERSY ON THE BERKELEY CAMPUS
||During Republican National Convention, according to
San Francisco Chronicle, 4 Dec. 1964, charges are made by Goldwater supporters
that Scranton supporters are illegally recruiting student volunteers on campus.
||Picketing of Oakland Tribune by Ad Hoc
Committee to End Discrimination, which recruits support on Berkeley campus
||Dean Towle bans posters, easels and tables at
Bancroft-Telegraph gate of Berkeley campus "because of interference with flow of
traffic" and "reminded" student groups of "rules prohibiting the
collection of funds and the use of University facilities for the planning and implementing
of off-campus political and social action." Previously, University officials had
"considered no action (to enforce these rules) to be necessary." (Quotes from
Chancellor Strong's Report of 26 Oct. 1964 to Academic Senate.)
San Francisco Chronicle of 4 Dec. said that although Chancellor
Strong called these rules "historic policy,' "the fact was, however, that it was
a policy frequently winked at by university officials--until the convention
controversy." (See June entry)
||Some 20 organizations of students announce coalition
as United Front in opposition to this reiteration of "historic policy' -- including
Slate, Campus CORE, University Society of Individualists, DuBois Club, Young People's
Socialist League, University Young Republicans, University Young Democrats, Young
Socialist Alliance, Campus Women for Peace, Youth for Goldwater, Student Committee for
Travel to Cuba, Student Committee for "No on Proposition 14," University Friends
of SNCC, Students for a Democratic Society, College Young Republicans, Students for
Independent Political Action, Youth Committee Against Proposition 14, and Independent
Socialist Club (as listed in Chancellor Strong's report to the Berkeley Division of the
Academic Senate, dated 26 Oct. 1964). The Inter-Faith Council and the California Council
of Republicans were also included.
|| In response to United Front protest Dean
Towle decides rules permit informational activity but not advocacy or organization of
political and social action; to protest this policy the United Front holds first rally on
steps of Sproul Hall (Berkeley campus administration building).
||Chancellor Strong interprets rules as allowing
distribution of campaign literature and similar materials at designated locations. Dean
Williams announces that those engaging in "illegal politics" may be expelled.
Several United Front organizations make test-issue of rules by manning tables to organize
political and social action.
||University begins disciplinary action against five
students for manning illegal tables; 400 students sign statements that they too have
manned illegal tables, enter Sproul Hall demanding disciplinary hearings, sit-in awaiting
hearing; 11:45, five students and 3 more thought leaders of demonstration are
"indefinitely suspended"; sit-in continues to 3:00 a. m.
||Protest rally and manning of tables on Sproul steps.
Arrest of Jack Weinberg, a former graduate student in Mathematics, for operating a CORE
table on Sproul steps; crowd of protestors, growing to 3000, blocks police car carrying
Weinberg away. Protestors enter Sproul Hall, sit-in to demand discussion of eight
suspensions; clash briefly with police in effort to block early locking of Sproul Hall
doors; protesters subsequently leave ,voluntarily.
||Some 450 police assemble on campus to undertake
removal of police car and Weinberg, still immobilized by seated crowd; University
officials, including President Kerr, members of faculty and student leaders meet, agree to
discuss differences. Police leave; demonstrators disperse. Weinberg booked, but released
as University, in accordance with agreement, does not press charges
||Emergence of Free Speech Movement (FSM) out of United
||Appointment by the Chancellor pursuant to 2 Oct.
agreement of ten members of committee of administration, faculty and students to
investigate and propose solutions of campus political problems; FSM to send two delegates
to committee. FSM protests composition of committee and gains agreement to four-man FSM
||Academic Senate passes motion favoring "maximum
freedom for student political activity"; calls for inquiry into, and recommendations
on, problems by Academic Freedom Committee.
|| President Kerr asks Academic Senate to
establish ad hoc committee to advise on disciplining of the eight suspended
students (Heyman Committee)
||Heyman Committee requests of Chancellor temporary
reinstatement of suspended students pending hearing and report. Request denied.
||FSM, impatient with committee, resumes picketing of
|| FSM rally on Sproul steps attracts 1200. Tables
again set up by FSM groups, ending six-week self-imposed moratorium. University officials
take names of some students manning tables; 800 students sign statements declaring that
they too have manned tables.
||Chancellor Strong dissolves
administration-faculty-student committee because FSM has resumed setting up tables
||Heyman Committee recommends censure of six students,
suspension of Savio and Art Goldberg for six weeks beginning 30 Sept. 1964.
||Regents accept recommendation by President Kerr and
Chancellor Strong for suspension of the eight students for the period 30 Sept.-20 Nov.,
and for the placing on probation of Savio and Goldberg. Regents also agree to modify
policy on political activity: recruiting, fund collecting, organization of "lawful
off-campus" action may take place in designated areas -- students advocating unlawful
action will be subject to University discipline. Rally of 4000 on Sproul steps and march
to University Hall where Regents are meeting
|| FSM sit-in of three hours in Sproul Hall over
issue of University discipline for off-campus activities.
||Chancellor issues new rules framed in accordance with
lines established by Regents in 20 Nov. meeting: "certain campus facilities ... may
be used ... for planning, implementing, raising funds or recruiting participants for
lawful off-campus action, not for unlawful off-campus action." Academic Senate
defeats 274 to 261, a motion to limit University regulation of speech, political and
social activity only to the extent "necessary to prevent undue interference with
other University affairs." A motion to establish a Senate committee to deal with
questions of student political conduct is also defeated.
||Letters of reprimand sent by University to some 60
students who had manned illegal tables on 9 Nov.
||FSM announces its leaders, Savio, Art Goldberg,
Jackie Goldberg and Brian Turner, face disciplinary action.
||FSM demands University drop charges, asserting only
courts have right to regulate political activity, including campus political activity;
demand University meet conditions in 24 hours or face demonstration.
||University ignores ultimatum. FSM rally attracts
6000; 1000 engage in sitin in Sproul Hall; over 800 remain for the night.
||Governor Brown sends police to clear out or arrest
demonstrators; Chancellor Strong urges students to leave Sproul; students remain: police
begin arrest and removal of students. Graduate students in large numbers begin picketing
of University buildings in protest of police action. Faculty members spontaneously arrange
meeting to consider crisis, pass resolutions calling for dropping of pending disciplinary
action against students, for the establishment of an Academic Senate committee to which
students could appeal penalties imposed for political activity, and for the Regents to
change their policy of 20 Nov. so that student off-campus political activities shall not
be subject to University discipline. Faculty members raise $8500 bail for students; many
meet with Judge Crittenden in effort to help in setting and posting bail, then in
returning students from prison farm.
|| ASUC Senate (the student government) urges
leniency for arrested students, dropping of charges against four FSM leaders, and test
case of University regulations.
||Meeting of 200 faculty members to consider
implementation of resolutions made in impromptu faculty meeting of 3 Dec., and to begin
drafting of motions to place before Berkeley Academic Senate.
||Release of agreement between department chairmen and
President Kerr on amnesty and modification of regulations concerning student political
activity. Departmental meetings at 9 a.m. to discuss agreement. 11 a.m. convocation in
Greek Theatre: announcement of agreement; speeches by Professor Scalapino and President
Kerr; meeting adjourned, attempted announcement by Savio, who is removed by police, but
then released and permitted to make announcement. FSM states agreement inadequate; looks
to faculty action in Academic Senate. Graduate student picketing suspended until after
||Meeting of Academic Senate; passage by vote of 824 to
115 of motion of Committee on Academic Freedom saying that control of student speech and
advocacy in politics must "be rendered unto Caesar" since the function of the
University is education, not control; and that a Senate committee should only regulate the
time, place, and manner of student political activity as was the case until 1938. Passage
of second motion to establish Senate Emergency Committee to help with problems arising out
of crisis. FSM adherents sweep seven ASUC Senate seats as unprecedented 5276 students
vote. FSM states full support for faculty position.
||John Masson Smiths Jr.; Ph.D., Assistant Professor of
Richard Bridgman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English, University of California,
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